JAVANESE MYSTICAL TEACHINGS

[Translated from the Javanese by M. Mansur Medeiros.]

W I R I D

(Mystical Teachings)

[By Raden Ngabehi Ranggawarsita]

This is the Book of Mystical Teachings Telling What the Eight Saints Taught.
Published by the Administration of (the newspaper) Jawi Kandha in Surakarta and Printed by the Press of N.V. Mij. t/v d/z ALBERT RUSCHE & CO., Surakarta,1908 .

BOOK OF MYSTICAL TEACHINGS

Introduction

These are the teachings called Hidayat Jati (True Divine Revelations) explaining the levels of makrifat (gnosis) and based on the history of the Javanese saints (or friends of God, wali). After the death of Sunan Ampel, each saint taught his own mystical doctrine, which served as the seed of mystical teachings for personal development in the direction of inner perfection. Like all mystical teachings (wirid), theirs were derived from the Quran, the Hadith (traditions of the Prophet), the unanimously accepted decisions of religious scholars (ijmak), as well as analogy (qiyas), and they occupied the following levels:

The first generation, at the start of the Kingdom of Demak, was made up of only eight persons:

1. Sunan Giri Kadhaton taught secrets about the glory of the Divine Essence (dzat).

2. Sunan Tandês taught how the Divine Essence is transmitted.

3. Sunan Majagung taught where the Divine Essence is located.

4. Sunan Benang taught about the opening of the Baitul Makmur (the Crowded House).

5. Sunan Wuryapada taught about the opening of the Baitul Muharram (the House of Forbidden Things).

6. Sunan Kalinyamat taught the way to strengthen one's faith.

7. Sunan Gunungjati taught about the Baitul Muharram (the House of Forbidden Things).

8. Sunan Kajênar taught about things witnessed.

The second, another generation between the end of the Kingdom of Dêmak and the start of the Kingdom of Pajang, was made up of only eight saints willing to teach:

1. Sunan Giri Parapen taught secrets about the Divine Essence and its nature.

2. Sunan Darajat explained how the Divine Essence was transmitted.

3. Sunan Ngatasangin taught where the Divine Essence was located.

4. Sunan Kalijaga taught about the structure of the Baitul Makmur (the Crowded House) followed by all that is concerned with incorporating the divine Essence into one's nature, but without clear instructions as to the order in which they were to be carried out.

5. Sunan Têmbayat was permitted by his teacher, Sunan Kalijaga, to teach about the structure of the Baitul Muharram (the House of Forbidden Things).

6. Sunan Kalinyamat about the Baitul Muqaddas (the Holy House).

7. Sunan Gunung Jati taught the way to strengthen one's fate.

8. Sunan Kajênar taught about things witnessed.

The third, still another generation between the end of the Kingdom of Dêmak and the start of the Kingdom of Pajang, was also made up of only eight saints willing to teach:

1. Sunan Parapen gave indications about the Divine Essence (dzat).

2. Sunan Darajat explained the Divine Essence.

3. Sunan Ngatasangin taught what the Divine Essence was like in detail.

4. Sunan Kalijaga taught about the Baitul Makmur (the Crowded House) followed by all that was concerned with incorporated the divine Essence into one's nature, but without clear instructions as to the order in which they were to be carried out.

5. Sunan Têmbayat was permitted by his teacher, Sunan Kalijaga, to teach about the Baitul Muharram (the House of Forbidden Things).

6. Sunan Padusan about the Baitul Muqaddas (the Holy House).

7. Sunan Kudus taught the way to strengthen one's fate.

8. Sunan Gêsêng taught about things witnessed.

All these teachings were one in the sense that they were based on the doctrine of Sunan Ampeldênta. When the Matraman era arrived, the Great Sultan Anyakrakusuma decided to combine the eight teachings to make them perfectly understandable. They were joined into one teaching. After this had been approved by experts in gnosis, the Great Sultan authorized the following to teach it:

1. Panembahan Purubaya,

2. Panembahan Ratupekik,

3. Panembahan Jurukithing,

4. Prince Kadilangu,

5. Prince Kudus,

6. Prince Tembayat,

7. Prince Wangga, and

8. Panembahan Juminah.

All these teachings were derived from quotations from books on tasawuf (Sufism) and were firmly based on true knowledge. They were a guide meant to clarify God's words to the Prophet Moses that man is a manifestation of the Divine Essence which is One in nature. This is the core of gnosis as taught by the prophets and saints of old and the starting point for the various teachings of the priests individually. When they were combined by the Great Sultan of Matraman, they were entirely in line with the teachings of gnosis, but with time they began to split apart again as a result of the multiplicity of teachers, each with his own point of view. Some confined their teaching to gnosis, but others brought in occultism like invincibility and martial arts. Later an indication was received by Kyai Ageng Muhammad Sirrullah [pseudonym for R. Ng. Ranggawarsita himself] of Kedhung Kol, to the south of Kedhung Kol Pengantên, in the Javanese year Alif (1779) that the Lord was willing for him to revise the teachings of gnosis and return them to their pristine state. [Discussion of extremely obscure chronogram omitted. Trans.]


Chapter 1

This is the start of the mystical teachings to explain how gnosis is taught for the perfection of life. The saints did it as explained here below.

It is required that the aspirant (murid) perform the lesser ablution (wudhu) and state his intention (niat) as follows:

"Nawaitu raf'al hadast shaghirata wal kabirata fardlan lillahi ta'ala, allahu akbar." (I intend to wash away my venial sins and my mortal sins for God's sake. God is most great.)

Then he must don clean clothes free of any gold threads. It is good to wear a head covering. He leaves his chest bare, puts on scent, and adorns his left ear with flowers threaded in the surengpati(unafraid of death) pattern. Around his neck he wears three strands of flowers threaded in the chicken intestine style following the margasupana (way to obtain supernatural power) pattern or the kind of fringe of threaded flowers attached to the handle of his kris customary for a bridegroom.

Then the room to be used for the lesson must be arranged. Plants must be placed in all four corners. Clean mats must be spread, and on top of them a brand new screw pine mat on which is spread seven layers of plain white cotton cloth, or at least no fewer than three, on which different kinds of flowers are sprinkled.

A dowry of coins totalling 38.5 grams of silver is placed in a container with perfume and incense grains weighing as much as a Rp2.50 silver coin. This is covered with white cloth. Two bunches of raja bananas, some fresh betel leaves, and a stalk of betel nuts are also wrapped in white cloth to form a second container. Together with two bunches of the flowers of the betel palm, these are offered in the place where the teachings will be conveyed.

After midnight, when everyone is sleeping, the interested persons proceed to the place. The aspirants sit facing west. Incense is burned, and the left ear, nose, and chest of each aspirant is censed. Then the teacher begins to instruct the aspirants in the presence of four witnesses of the same beliefs.

The teaching consists of the compiled teachings of the eight saints of Java, decorated with the essence of the word of God which the Prophet Muhammad, upon whom be peace, spoke into the left ear of Sayidina 'Ali. There are eight parts, as follows:
(to be continued)


Some other Javanese texts


1. Introduction: A Passage from the Nitisastra

The following passage, a translation into Modern Javanese prose from the Middle Javanese poetry of the Majapahit Dynasty, is a good introduction to the way the Javanese view their literature, most of which concerns either history or spirituality:

From the NITISASTRA

About Classical [Javanese] Literature

1. Jun iku yen lukak kocak, bisane mênêng-antêng yen kêbak. Sapi wadon kang sêru suwarane, sathithik powane. Wong kang ala rupane, polahe digawe-gawe. Wong wuta sastra, wicarane kasar ora ngrêsêpake.

1. Water jugs nearly empty make splashing noises. To be quiet, they must be full. A cow that moos loudly gives little milk. An ugly person behaves artificially. A person unacquainted with books speaks crudely in a manner that gives no pleasure.

2. Ara-ara kang tanpa sukêt, rajakaya wêgah ngambah. Kali kang asat banyune, ora sinaba ing bango. Priya kang uripe sangsara, diêmohi wanita. Ratu kang kurang titi-pariksa lan wêngis pangandikane, dioncati dening para kawulane.

2. If an empty field has no grass, livestock will avoid it. No herons come to a dried up river bed. Women want to have nothing to do with an impoverished man. A rash king who speaks rathfully will find that his subjects will move away.

3. Manawa ana madu campur karo wisa, alapên madune bae. Yen ana kêncana campur karo tinja, jupukên kêncanane, kumbahên. Wong utama kang sugih kawruh, sanajan turuning sudra, prayoga rakêtana. Wanita utama kang sulistya ing warna, sanajan turune wong asor, pantês dadi garwane wong gêdhe.

3. If you find honey with poison in it, take the honey and leave the poison. If there is gold mixed with excrement, take the gold and wash it. A fine man filled with spiritual knowledge, though he be of the lowest caste, is fitting to be made a close associate. Though she be of humble origin, a fine woman, if beautiful, is appropriate to be taken by a great man as his wife.

4. Gandhaning candhana mahanani anyêsing ati, ngluwihi anyêsing sorote rêmbulan. Manawa gandaning candhana iku ditikêlake loro, isih kalah karo anyêsing pangandikane pandhita kang pindha tirta marêta. Gêni iku panas, ngluwihi panasing srêngenge. Yen panasing gêni iku ditikêlake loro, isih kongkulan panasing gunême wong ala.

4. The cool fragrance of sandalwood refreshes the heart more than does moonlight, but if its fragrance were doubled in sweetness, it would still not be as sweet as priestly words flowing like the water of immortality. Fire is hotter than the sun, but if its heat were doubled in fierceness, it would still not burn as hot as the words of a bad person.

5. Prajurit kang unggul ing yuda, uripe ngalami mukti wibawa. Prajurit kang kasambut madyaning rana, manjing suwarga sineba para widadari. Prajurit kang ngucira ing yuda, patine bakal manjing nraka siniksa dening wadyabalane Yama. Yen ora mati, uripe diremehake dening bêbrayan agung, utawa ditawan lan disiya-siya dening mungsuh.

5. A victorious soldier lives in prosperity and honor. One who dies honorably in battle enters heaven and has goddesses seated all around him. One who dies a coward will enter hell and be tortured by the army of Yama, the god of death. If he lives, he will either be scorned by his countrymen or taken prisoner and mistreated by the enemy.


How To Study Javanese Mysticism

These passages are from old books which have descended from the wise men of old. Nobody knows who wrote them.

Purwaka

Introduction

Manawi kita gagas-gagas, lampahing ngagesang punika kenging winastan karoban dening panyêluding wisaya. Boten rumiyin, boten sapunika, boten rampung-rampung, tansah sami cocongkrahan, labêt sami rêbat lêrês dhatêng gagandhulan tuwin tekadipun piyambak-piyambak.

When we think about it, life can be called being flooded by invasive sensory perceptions. It is not before, not now, never finished, and always filled with difficulties caused by quarrelling over one another's points of view and intentions.,

Wisaya punika wontên ingkang gampil kasumuruban, lan wontên ingkang botên gampil anggenipun nyumêrêbi. Wisaning sawêr botên sanes namung dumunung wontên ing untu, lan panyêmburipun. Wisaning kalabang lan kalajêngking wonten ing êntupipun. Ananging ing samangke, lah dumunung wontên ing pundi, menggah wisaning sadaya s^erat-sêrat piwulang, ingkang sampun sumebar dados wawaosianing ngakathah? Punika botên sanes kajawi dumunung wontên ing pangertosan kita pribadi.

When it comes to sensory impressions, some are easy to perceive and others not. A snake's poison is in its fangs and the muscles force it out. The poison of thousand-leggers and scorpions is in their stings. But, now, where are the poisons in the writings spread throughout society for the purpose of teaching the many? Nowhere else but in our understanding.

Kados pundi ing jagad, kawontênan panggêlaring piwulang ingkang sami kasêbut ing sêrat-sêrat, punapa inggih wontên pigunanipun ingkang langkung agêng tumrap ing gêsang kita, murih tata têntrêm lan karaharjan? Lha punika nyumanggakakên, amargi piwulang kasêbut ing dalêm sêrat-sêrat wau, sagêd nuwuhakên pangertosan warni kalih, sapisan: pengêrtosan ingkang ngênggeni wontên ing sasananing kalêrêsan. Dene ingkang kaping kalih: pangertosan ingkang ngênggeni wontên ing panasaran.

How is it with the written teachings spread throughout the world? Are they of any great use in making our lives orderly, peaceful, and prosperous? It's up to you to decide, because the teachings in books can provide two different kinds of understanding: first that which is correct, and, second, that which is mistaken.

Manawi kita sagêd mangêrtos nampeni suraosing piwulang wau, punika kados dene kita manggih usada ingkang sampun sumêrêb abên-abênan lan tumanjanipun. Manawi makatên sampun tamtu kita sagêd manggih kawilujêngan lan kemulyan. Kosokwangsulipun pangertosan kita ingkang saking sêrêp panampinipun, punika kados dene kita manggih usada ingkang abên-abênan tuwin tumanjanipun dereng kita sumêrêbi. Ingkang makatên punika sagêd ugi andadosakên ing wisaya. Langkung-langkung yen pangêrtosan ingkang sêling sêrêp panampinipun wau, lajêng katularakên ing ngasanes, sarana lesan utawi sarana sêrat-sêrat, sampun tamtu badhe langkung agêng ing wisayanipun.

If we can understand the right way to take those teachings, it will be like finding a medicine whose formula and curative virtue we know. It will certainly enable us to find health and prosperity. However, if our understanding is wrong, it is as if we have found a medicine whose formula and curative virtue we do not know. That is the very kind that can be magnified by sensory impressions, especially when error is spread to others verbally or in writing. It will then be exaggerated by the senses.

Kasêbut ing sêrat Paniti Sastra bab 10 ungêlipun makatên: ingkang dados wisaning tiyang nêdha punika bilih kirang telatos pamamahing têtêdhan, yen botên lêmbut ingkang dipun têdha yêkti dados sêsakit. Mênggah pikajênganipun makatên: têmbung: tiyang nêdha, mangêrtosipun nêdha kawruh. Pamamahing têtêdhan: pikajênganipun: panyuraosing kawruh. Mênggah gamblangipun makatên: tiyang ngudi kawruh punika kêdah telatos panyuraosipun, murih mangêrtos ing lair batos. Sêbab yen botên makatên, kawruh ingkang sajatosipun langkung miraos tumrap raosing manah, botên siwah kadidena raosing madu pinasthika, têmah lajêng malik garêmbyang dados raos pait asêngak kadidene tuwak sajêng ingkang angêndêmi, ing wusana lajêng andadosaên wisaning jiwa raga.

It is said in Chapter 10 of the work Studying Books that what poisons a person is insufficient chewing. When the food itself is not soft this is a source of illness. What is meant here by a person eating is absorbing knowledge. Chewing food means understanding knowledge. The real meaning is that a person looking for knowledge needs to study in detail until he understands it inwardly and outwardly. Because if not, that knowledge, though it seem very sweet to the mind, just like the best of honey, will later reverse itself and become as bitter and sharp as intoxicating palm wine, poisoning soul and body.

Kuwontênan ingkang makatên wau, sanyatanipun botên nama aneh, yen kita kajlungupa ing jurang panasaran. Sabab miturut panggêlaring sadaya sêrat-sêrat piwulang, punika prasasat mbotên wontên têmbung ingkang ukaranipun kadamêl prasojo, nanging wontên têmbung paribasan, pasemon, pralambang, tuwin pralampita. Dados prasasat kita sami kinen ambatang adêging cacangkriman. Dene mênggah pikajênganipun: Sapisan perlu kangge ngadegakên tuwin ngluhurakên. Kaping kalihipun pêrlu kangge dhadhasaring pamarsudi tumrap para siswa, supados tansah sami anandangakên kalimpadan alusing pambudi. Mila siswa ingkang kirang lantip, inggih botên sagêd nampeni piwulang wau..

Given this situation, it can in no way be called strange if we are made to fall into the ravine of error. This is because of the way books of teachings are written. It is as if they are never set out in plain language. Instead, they are full of sayings, parables, symbols, and similitudes. The reasons for this are two: first to teach in a way that respects the subject matter, and second because it is necessary to write teachings thus to keep the mind of the reader sharp and clear. That way the aspirant who is dull-witted will never be able to grasp such teachings.

Wontênipun sêrat ingkang kadhapur paribasan, pralampita, pasemon, tuwin pralambang upaminipun sêrat Maha Bharata. Sêrat Maha Bharata punika sêrat ingkang isi sawarnaning sadaya kawruh, kadosta kawruh kasukman, kawruh kadewan, kawruh kamanungsan, lan sanes-sanesipun. Sêrat Maha Bharata punika kaprinci dados pintên-pintên parwa, utawi perangan, utawi bageyan. Parwa isi pintên-pintên sloka.

An example of a book written in sayings, similitudes, parables, and symbols is the Maha Bharata, a work filled with every kind of knowledge, including spiritual knowledge, knowledge about the gods, and knowledge about human life. The Maha Bharata has many books, and each one contains many stanzas.

Sarehning makaten kawontênanipun, dados manawi kita badhe nyuraos piwulang ingkang kasêbut ing Maha Bharata wau, kita kêdah ngengêti parwa lan slokanipun, yen botên makatên têmtu badhe klintu panyuraosipun. Jalaran têmbung satunggal kemawon umpami Krêsna, punika anggadhahi têgês pintên-pintên kemawon kadosta cêmêng, toya, pikir, rahsa, gêsang, lan sasaminipun miturut parwa lan slokanipun.

Because of this, if we want to understand the teachings of the Maha Bharata, we have to be aware of where we are in the poem. Otherwise we will surely get mixed up. The reason is that one word may have so many meanings. Take Kresna. Depending where it appears, it may mean "black, water, intellect, innermost feeling, life," and so on.

Piwulang kasêbut ing ngandhap punika nyimpên wêwados ingkang kadhapur kalimpadaning basa ingkang pikajênganipun asung piwulang dhatêng kita, yen sadaya pandamêl punika sayogi katindakna kanthi papadhanging angên-angên. Mênggah piwulang wau, kula udhari makatên:

The teachings below hide secrets which are expressed in such language as will instruct us if we carry out their message with properly enlightened minds. Here are the teachings explained:

1. Aja ngandêl pituturing wong, mênggah pikajênganipun: kita sampun ngandêl dhatêng pituturing tiyang ingkang botên kasêksen tuwin ingkang botên miturut dhatêng gumêlaring akal ingkang sampun sah dening para sarjana, sarta ingkang botên sagêd kasêksen dening papadhanging nalar.

1. Do not believe what people say. In other words, let us not believe something told us when we have not witnessed it ourselves or if it is not in accordance with what the learned have said or makes no sense to an enlightened mind.

2. Aja ngandêl marang wirayat kuna, amarga saka lawase, pikajênganipun têmbung: lawase = luwas = lawas = suwe = têbih = mêmêt = lêbêt, suraosipun punika sagêdipun kita ngandêl, inggih manawi kita sampun sagêd njajagi maksuding wirayat wau.

2. Don't believe old stories just because they are old. Old means worn out = not new = distant = hard to reach = deep. In other words, it is all right for us to believe them only after we are capable of understanding their deeper meaning.

3. Aja ngandêl pawarta, sabab akeh wong ngandhakake, pikajênganipun sampun ngandêl pawartosipun tiyang ingkang sampun misuwur, cidra, sanadyan maneka warni kasagahanipun prayogi botên kapaelu.

3. Do not believe news just because a lot of people are telling it. In other words, do not believe the claims of even well-known people. It is wrong. Even when such people make all kinds of promises, it is not right to do what they say.

4. Aja ngandêl thok waton saka layang karangane wong wicaksana ing jaman kuna. Pikajênganipun sampun ngantos ngandêl kemawon dhatêng sadaya sêrat-sêrat: kina. Awit sêrat-sêrat wau upami mungêla abrit sagêd ugi maksudipun cêmêng. Inggih sêrat ingkang makatên punika ingkang kêdah kita jingglêng maksud suraosipun. Sêbab kados atur kula ing ngajêng, yen sadaya sêrat piwulang, punika sami dhinapur pralampita, dene badharing pralampita wau muhung saking pangêrtosan kita pribadi.

4. Do not just believe old books written by the wise in former times. In other words, do not just swallow them whole. The reason is that such books, when they say red, may mean black. Books like that are something we have to study very, very closely to get their meaning. This is because, as we said above, all books of teachings are expressed in symbols, and there is no way to decode those symbols except by using our own minds and understanding.

5. Aja ngandêl marang gurumu lan para pandhita, amarga saka kuwasane: pikajênganipun: mrayitnani dhatêng pratingkahing para ingkang ngakên dados guru ingkang mawi papacak: kudu manut miturut, lan kudu asih trêsna marang gurumu lan marang pandhuwuranmu sabab dhudhuwuranmu, iku dadi wakile kang maha kuwasa. Lah inggih makatên wau manawi botên kita prayitnani, têmah sagêd ugi dhumawah ing kasangsaran. Dene sanyatanipun ingkang wajib asih trêsna punika ratu tumrap ing kawula, bapa biyung tumrap ing anak, guru tumrap murid. Yen sanyata asih trêsna trus ing lahir batos sampun tamtu kawula murid sami amangsul sih katrêsnan ingkang botên mawi pinarintah.

5. Don't believe your teacher or priests because of their powers. In other words, look closely at the behavior of those who claim to be teachers saying that you must obey and follow and love your teacher and your superiors because they are your superiors and thus are the representatives of Almighty God. Well, in those cases, if such individuals are not looked into carefully, a person could fall into misery. The way it ought to be is that the king should love his subjects, the parents should love their children, and the teacher should love the pupil. If this love is sincere, inwardly and outwardly, then it is certain that the subject and the pupil will return that love without being ordered to do so.

Yen kita sagêd ngugêmi piwulang nêm prakawis inggih ing ngriku punika ênggening kasunyatan, mangêrtosipun: Têtêping ulah kawruh punika, yen sagêd kanyatahan wontên pikantukipun ingkang langkung agêng ing bab: Karaharjan, Kamulyan, tuwin Katêntrêman.

If these six teachings can be followed, they will be the place where you will find detachment and the highest truth. If you persevere in their practice and succeed in really reaching their goal, you will experience a very great receiving in the form of Well-Being, Honor, Prosperity, and Peace.

ÖManawi badhe maos buku punika kêdah sampun suci lahir batin, mangêrtosipun salêbêting nampi wêjangan ing dalêm buku punika kêdah kanthi panggalih ingkang têntrêm, suci, têliti, wêning. Botên kenging grusa-grusu, srakah, rêgêd ing pikir. Sadaya punika namung murih kasêmbadaning sêdya ingkang utami, awit botên klentu anggenipun nampi suraosing buku punika.

ÖIf you wish to read this book, it is necessary to be clean inwardly and outwardly, or, in other words, in receiving the spiritual teachings in this book it is a must to be peaceful, clean, attentive, and clear of mind. It is not permitted to be rude and coarsely hurried or greedy, or to have dirty thoughts. This is so that you will reach your noble aim as a result of not misunderstanding the meaning of this book.


3. A Teaching Text

Wirayat Jati

True Teachings

Anênggih punika pituduh ingkang sanyata, anggêlarakên dunung lan pangkating kawruh kasampurnan, winiwih saking pamêjangipun para wicaksana ing Nungsa Jawi, karsa ambuka pitêdah kasajatining kawruh kasampurnan, tutuladhan saking Kitab Tasawuf, panggêlaring wêjangan wau thukul saking kawêningan raosing panggalih, inggih cipta sasmitaning Pangeran, rinilan ambuka wêdharing pangandikaning Pangeran dhatêng N. Musa, Kalamolah, ingkang suraosipun makatên: Ing sabênêr-bênêre manungsa iku kanyatahaning Pangeran, lan Pangeran iku mung sawiji.

Yes, these are true indications, setting out fully the nature and levels of spiritual knowledge, seeds sown by the wise ones of the Isle of Java in their desire to reveal the truth of the spiritual knowledge founded on the examples set forth in Sufistic books, a knowledge that grows and spreads when the feelings are pure and clear. They are based on divine guidance permitting the revelation of these words of God to the Prophet Moses, the prophet called the Word of God: "In reality humankind is the reality of the Lord, and the Lord is One."

Pangandikaning Pangeran ingkang makatên wau, inggih punika ingkang kawêdharakên dening para gurunadi dhatêng para ingkang sami katarimah puruitanipun. Dene wontên kawruh wau, lajêng kadhapuk 8 papangkatan, sarta pamêjanganipun sarana kawisikakên ing talingan kiwa. Mangêrtosipun asung pêpengêt bilih wêdharing kawruh kasampurnan, punika botên kenging kawêjangakên dhatêng sok tiyanga, dene kengingipun kawêjangakên, namung dhatêng tiyang ingkang sampun pinaringan ilhaming Pangeran, têgêsipun tiyang ingkang sampun tinarbuka papadhanging budi pangangên-angênipun (ciptanipun).

These words of the Lord are what teachers explain to the pupils they accepted. These teachings of theirs are divided into eight levels, and they are whispered into the left ear. This is meant as a reminder that it is not permitted for spiritual knowledge to be revealed to all and sundry. It may be taught only to those who have been inspired by God, or, in other words, whose minds have been opened and enlightened.

Awit saking punika, pramila ingkang sami kasdu maos sêrat punika sayuginipun sinêmbuha nunuwun ing Pangeran, murih tinarbuka ciptaning sagêd anampeni saha angêcupi suraosing wejangan punika, awit suraosipun pancen kapara nyata yen saklangkung gawat. Mila kasêmbadanipun sagêd angêcupi punapa suraosing wêjangan punika, inggih muhung dumunung ing ndalêm raosing cipta kemawon. Mila inggih botên kenging kangge wiraosan kaliyan tiyang ingkang dereng nunggil raos, inggih ingkang dereng kêparêng angsal ilhaming Pangeran. Hewa dene sanadyana kangge wiraosing kaliyan tiyang ingkang dereng nunggil raos, wêdaling pangandika ugi mawia dudugi lan pramayogi, mangêrtosipun kêdah angen mangsa lan êmpan papan saha sinamun ing lulungidaning basa.

That is why anyone who wishes to read this book should first ask the Lord to open his mind so that he may receive and enter into the meaning of its teachings, for they are very difficult and dangerous. The best way, so that one may enter into and know these teachings is to surrender everything completely within the feelings of oneís mind. That is why it is not permitted to discuss them with those who have not yet experienced union, which is to say those who have not yet received divine inspiration. If they must be revealed before those who are unready, then it is necessary to be wise and cautious, meaning that one must consider the time and place and cloak the teachings in symbols and parables.

Mênggah wontêning wêwêjangan 8 pangkat wau, kados ing ngandhap punika:

As for the eight levels of this teaching, they are as follows:

I, 1. Wêwêjangan ingkang rumiyin, dipun wastani: pitêdahan wahananing Pangeran, sasadan pangandikanipun Pangeran dhatêng N. Mohammad s.a.w. Makatên pangandikanipun: Sajatine ora ana apa-apa, awit duk maksih awang-uwung durung ana sawiji-wiji, kang ana dhihin iku ingsun, ora ana Pangeran anging ingsun sajatine kang urip luwih suci, anartani warna aran lan pakartiningsun (dat, sipat, asma, afngal).

I, 1. The first of the teachings is called: knowledge of the vehicle of the Lord, as the Lord said to the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, "Truly nothing exists, for when there was nothing but the empty heavens, the first thing was I (There is no Lord but I) who live in great purity throughout the levels of My form, names, and works (dat, essence; sipat, attributes; asma names; afngal, acts)."

I, 2. Mênggah dunungipun makatên: kang binasakake angandika ora ana Pangeran anging ingsun, sajatine urip kang luwih suci, sajatosipun inggih gêsang kita punika rinasuk dening Pangeran kita, mênggahing warna nama lan pakarti kita, punika sadaya saking purbawisesaning Pangeran kita, inggih kang sinuksma, têtêp tintêtêpan, inggih kang misesa, inggih kang manuksma, umpami surya lan sunaripun, mabên lan manisipun, sayêkti botên sagêd den pisaha.

I, 2. As for the import of the preceding, what the Lord meant in saying "There is no Lord but I" was that life is something very holy, and in truth our lives are totally imbued with the presence of our Lord in our forms, names, and deeds, and that in truth life originates in its creation by our Lord, so that both that which is entered into and continually created and that which enters and continually creates it, are, like the sun and its rays, honey and its sweetness, inseparable.

II, 1. Wêwêjangan ingkang kaping kalih, dipun wastani: Pambuka kahananing Pangeran, pamêjangipun amarahakên papangkatan adêging gêsang kita dumunung ing dalêm 7 kahanan, sasadan pangandikanipun Pangeran dhatêng N. Mohammad s.a.w. Makatên pangandikanipun: Satuhune ingsun Pangeran sajati, lan kawasan anitahakên sawiji-wiji, dadi padha sanalika saka karsa lan pêpêsteningsun, ing kono kanyatahane gumêlaring karsa lan pakartiningsun, kang dadi pratandha.

II, 1. The second teaching is called: the opening of the state of the Lord, and it explains that our life is divided into seven levels, as the Lord told the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him. He said: "I am the true Lord, and with My power I created everything, and it all came into being at once as I desired and decreed, and this creation was the realization of the unfolding of My will and acts, and it is a sign.

II, 2. Kang dhihin, ingsun gumana ing dalêm awang-uwung kang tanpa wiwitan tanpa wêkasan, iya iku alam ingsun kang maksih piningit.

II, 2. "First I was hidden in the empty heavens without beginning or end, in My still-separated world.

II, 3. Kapindho, ingsun anganakake cahya minangka panuksmaningsun dumunung ana ing alam pasênêdaningsun.

II, 3. "Second, I created light as a spirit where I could manifest Myself in the world which was My hiding place.

II, 4. Kaping têlu, ingsun anganakake wawayangan minangka panuksma lan dadi rahsaningsun, dumunung ana ing alam pambabaraning wiji.

II, 4. "Third, I created shadows as a place where I could manifest Myself and to be My secret self, present in the world of the multiplication of seed.

II, 5. Kaping pat, ingsun anganakake suksma minangka dadi pratandha kauripaningsun, dumunung ana ing alaming gêtih.

II, 5. "Fourth, I created the human spirit as a sign of My life located in the world of the blood.

II, 6. Kaping lima, ingsun anganakake angên-angên kang uga dadi warnaningsun, ana ing dalêm alam kang lagi kêna kaumpamaake bae.

II, 6. "Fifth, I created the thoughts which are also My form, and which are inside a world that can be explained only with comparisons.

II, 7. Kaping ênêm, ingsun anganakake budi, kang minangka kanyatahan pêncaring angên-angên kang dumunung ana ing dalêm alaming badan alus.

II, 7. "Sixth, I created the mind, which is a vehicle for the spreading of the thoughts present in the world of the supersensible body.

II, 8. Kaping pitu, ingsun anggêlar warana kang minangka kakandhangan sakabehing paserenaningsun. Kasêbut nêm prakara ing dhuwur mau tumitah ana ing donya iya iku sajatining manungsa.

II, 8. Seventh, I spread a screen to be a shelter within which I could rest from further action. All six above I created in the world as the true human nature.


"seorang suluk" sampai mendapatkan tingkatan ruhani tertentu
An Anonymous Javanese Explanation of the Levels of Spiritual Attainment

Translation by Muhammad-Mansur Medeiros

"Seorang suluk" sampai mendapatkan tingkatan ruhani tertentu diumpamakan sebuah Kelapa.

 

Lapisan pertama kelapa adalah sabut istilah Jawanya "sepet" itu masih empuk, ya artinya biasa-biasa aja, mungkin masih maqom "takholli", sudah bisa pengosongan pikiran. Tapi belum merasakan enaknya dan untuk merasakan enaknya kontemplasi harus melewati lapisan kedua yaitu Batok kelapa.

 

 

Lapisan kedua adalah batok kelapa, keras memang, tapi kalau karena keras trus mundur ya tidak pernah merasakan enaknya buah kelapa, yang bisa dibikin kopyor dan es kelapa muda.

 

Lapisan ketiga adalah daging kelapa, suluk kalau pada tingkatan ini sudah merasakan enaknya ber-kontemplasi. Sehari tidak berdzikir rasanya ketagihan, apalagi kalo' sudah pada lapisan keempat.

 

 

Lapisan keempat adalah santan, dan lapisan kelima adalah minyak kelapa.

 

Nach kalo' sudah mencapai lapisan kelima ini kemungkinan yang namanya

ilmu laduniyyah ini akan diberikan oleh Allah.

 

 

Tapi bukan tujuannya" Lho. Tujuan seorang suluk adalah kerinduan pada yang dicintaiNya. Tapi kalau ada Fadhol Allah berupa laduni adalah coba'an dari seorang suluk. Apakah bisa menjaga rahasia Allah atau tidak.

 

A Sufiís progress through the levels of spiritual attainment can be compared to the layers of a coconut.

The first layer is the fibre, in Javanese called the sepet. It's the soft layer, so it can be compared to the stage of takhalli, or imitation, the most elementary one. The seeker can already empty himself of thoughts, but cannot yet taste the pleasure of spiritual life, because to experience the pleasure of true contemplation it's necessary to pierce the next layer, the coconut shell.

This layer is hard, certainly, but if one gives up because of its hardness, one will never taste the deliciousness of the inside, which includes that of the sherbet and iced drinks made of young coconuts.

 

The third layer is the meat of the coconut. At this stage the pleasure of contemplation can be felt. If one doesn't recite one's litanies for one day, one's like an drug addict in need of a fix. This is even truer when the fourth level is reached.

 

The fourth layer is the coconut milk, and the fifth is the oil.

 

If one arrives at the fifth level, then it is possible that one will receive ilmu laduniyyah, or knowledge inspired directly by God without studying or learning."

 

But remember, that's not the purpose. The purpose

of the Sufi path is to heal one's longing for the Beloved. Indeed, if God blesses a person with the kind of knowledge called laduni, it is a testówill he be able to keep God's secret?

 


From the SÍrat Niti Mani

(Book of Guidance Concerning the Male Seed)

SÍrat Niti Mani

Translation (MMM)

. . . WontÍn malih kacarios lalampahanipun Seh Siti JÍnar, inggih Seh LÍmah Abang. Pepuntoning tekadipun murtad ing agami, ambucal dhatÍng sarengat. Saking karsanipun nÍgari patrap ing makatÍn wau kagalih ambÍbaluhi adamÍl risaking pangadilan, ingriku Seh Siti JÍnar anampeni hukum kisas, tÍgÍsipun hukuman pÍjah.

More is then told of Sheikh Siti JÍnar, alias Sheikh LÍmah Abang. The end result of his intentions was apostasy. He departed from the shariiíah. In accordance with the decision of the authorities, his doings as described previously being considered to having contributed greatly to the corruption of their sense of justice, Sheikh Siti JÍnar, as a result, was sentenced to death.

SarÍng jaja sampun tinuwÍg ing lÍlungiding warastra, naratas anandhang brana, mucar wiyosing ludira, nalutuh awarni seta. AmÍsat kuwanda muksa datan ana kawistara. Anulya ana swara, lamat-lamat kapiyarsa, surasa paring wasita:

. When his breast was pierced by the sharp point of the weapon, blood spurted out, like white sap. Suddenly the body vanished. Then a faint voice was heard to chant:

Kinanti

Wau kang murweng don luhung, atilar wasita jati, e manungsa sesa-sesa, mungguh ing jamaning pati, ing reh pÍpuntoning tekad, santa-santosaning kapti.

Kinanti

The first one to reach this high place is leaving behind his testament, a trustworthy teaching:
"O you people who merely imitate others, [know that] when it comes time to die, what happens [to you] will depend on your intention [when alive], your holiness and steadfastness of purpose.

Nora saking anon ngrungu, riringa rÍngÍt siningit, labÍt sasalin salaga, salugune den-ugÍmi, yeka pangagÍme raga, suminggah ing sangga runggi.

"Those are not gained from watching and hearing [others]. A diffident attitude [to others] is a devouring moth in hiding. [Holiness and steadfastness] are gained from altering your self. Trusting only your own perceptions without admixture from others, [trusting] what is yours alone, is the [way to] escape from irresolution.

Marmane sarak siningkur, kÍrana angrubÍdi, manggung karya was sumÍlang, Ímbuh-Ímbuh den-andhÍmi, iku panganggone donya, tÍkeng pati nguciwani.

The reason for rising above the shariiíah is that it is an obstacle constantly making one worried and hesitant, unsure whether one is following it [properly]. It is a thing for use in the world. When death comes, it will be of no avail.

Sajati-jatining ngelmu, lungguhe cipta pribadi, pusthinÍn pangesthinira, ginÍlÍng dadi sawiji,wijanging ngelmu jatmika,neng kaanan ÍnÍng Íning.

"The truest spiritual awareness is located in oneís own private thoughts. Be sure of your total determination. Gather together into one the teachings of the science of noble behavior in a state of perfect stillness and clarity of thought."


Click for:

DEWA RUCI

(From the mid-nineteenth-century
* SÍrat Cabolek*/The Book of Cabolek)


Page opened on 3 November 1996, revised 20 July 2006

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